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The kernel tracing part of LTTng requires out of tree modules to be built against the running kernel. These modules depend on the tracepoint facility which is disabled in the current Alpine Linux grsec kernel. However, the alternate vanilla kernel has all the required options built-in.
Reboot with the vanilla kernel, you'll have to either change the default kernel flavour in /etc/update-extlinux.conf or uninstall the grsec kernel. Then build the LTTng modules from source.
If you have an already running lttng-sessiond at this point, it will need to be restarted to enable kernel tracing.
For more information on kernel tracing, read Tracing the Linux kernel in the lttng’s documentation.
The userspace tracing part of LTTng requires your application to be instrumented and linked with liblttng-ust, on Alpine you'll need the lttng-ust-dev package.
For more information on userspace tracing, read Tracing your own user application in the lttng’s documentation.