Difference between revisions of "Template:Copying Alpine to Flash"

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m (Format {{{1|Flash Medium}}}: fix ambiguity)
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=== Boot Alpine Linux CD-ROM ===
#REDIRECT [[Include:Copying Alpine to Flash]]
# Insert the Alpine Linux CD-ROM into a computer.
# Boot the computer from the Alpine Linux CD-ROM.
#* This step may require changes to the BIOS settings to select booting from CD.
# Login with the username ''root''. No password is needed.
=== Determine the Device Name of the {{{1|Flash Medium}}} ===
Determine the name your computer uses for your {{{1|flash medium}}}. The following step is one way to do this.
# After inserting the {{{1|flash medium}}}, run the command:
#* {{Cmd|dmesg}}
#* At the end of this command you should see the name of your {{{1|flash medium}}}, likely starting with "sd". (For example: "sda").
#* The remainder of this document will assume that your {{{1|flash medium}}} is called /dev/sda
{{Warning|Be very careful about this. You do not want to mistakenly wipe your hard drive if it's on /dev/sda}}
=== Format {{{1|Flash Medium}}} ===
Run fdisk (replacing sda with your {{{1|flash medium}}} name):
{{Cmd|fdisk /dev/sda}}
# (''Optional'') - Create new partition table with one FAT32 partition
#* '''d''' Delete all partitions (this may take a few steps)
#* '''n''' Create a new partition
#* '''p''' A primary partition
#* '''1''' Partition number 1
#** Use defaults for first and last cylinder (just press [Enter] twice).
#* '''t''' Change partition type
#* '''c''' Partition type (Win95 FAT32/LBA)
#Verify that the primary partition is bootable
#* '''p''' Print list of partitions
#* If there is no '*' next to the first partition, follow the next steps:
#** '''a''' <big>Make the partition bootable (set boot flag)</big>
#** '''1''' Partition number 1
#'''w''' Write your changes to the device
=== Add Alpine Linux to the {{{1|Flash Medium}}}  ===
To boot from your {{{1|flash medium}}} you need to copy the contents of the CDROM to the {{{1|flash medium}}} and make it bootable. Those two operations can be automated with the [[setup-bootable]] tool or can be done manually.
{{Note|If the following commands fail due to 'No such file or directory', you may have to remove and reinsert the {{{1|flash medium}}}, or even reboot, to get /dev/sda1 to appear}}
==== Automated ====
{{Tip|If using Alpine Linux 1.10.4 or newer, you can use this section to complete the install. Otherwise, follow the Manual steps below.}}
# Run the [[setup-bootable]] script to add Alpine Linux to the {{{1|flash medium}}} and make it bootable (replacing sda with your {{{1|flash medium}}} name):
#: {{Cmd|setup-bootable /media/cdrom /dev/sda1}}
{{Note|The target partition has to be formatted. Use the <code>mkdosfs</code> command from the Manual steps below if needed.}}
{{Warning|If you are installing to a USB Stick, the <code>setup-bootable</code> script will not use <code>usbdisk</code> in the {{Path|syslinux.cfg}} file. You should modify it to say <code>usbdisk</code> as [[#Wrong_Device_Name|described below]], or you will face possible problems booting and definite problems with the package cache.}}
==== Manual ====
# (''Optional'') - If you created a new partition above, format the {{{1|flash medium}}} with a FAT32 filesystem (replacing sda with your {{{1|flash medium}}} name):
#: {{Cmd|apk add dosfstools<BR>mkdosfs -F32 /dev/sda1}}
# Install syslinux and MBR (replacing sda with your {{{1|flash medium}}} name):
#: {{Cmd|{{{|apk add syslinux<BR>dd if=/usr/share/syslinux/mbr.bin of=/dev/sda}}}<BR>syslinux /dev/sda1}}
#Copy the files to the {{{1|flash medium}}} (replacing sda with your {{{1|flash medium}}} name):
#: {{Cmd|<nowiki>mkdir -p /media/sda1
mount -t vfat /dev/sda1 /media/sda1
cd /media/cdrom
cp -a .alpine-release * /media/sda1/
umount /media/sda1</nowiki>}}
== Troubleshooting ==
=== Wrong Device Name ===
If you cannot boot from the {{{1|flash medium}}} and you see something like:
Mounting boot media failed.
initramfs emergency recovery shell launched. Type 'exit' to continue boot
then it is likely that the device name in syslinux.cfg is wrong. You should replace the device name in the syslinux.cfg line:
append initrd=/boot/grsec.gz alpine_dev='''usbdisk''':vfat modules=loop,cramfs,sd-mod,usb-storage quiet
with the proper device name.
* For boot from USB, the device name should be 'usbdisk' (as shown above)
* For other options, you can run '''cat /proc/partitions''' to see the available disks (i.e. 'sda' or 'sdb')
=== Non-FAT32 Filesystems ===
When your {{{1|flash medium}}} is formatted with a filesystem other than FAT32, you might have to specify the necessary filesystem modules in the boot parameters.
To do so, mount the {{{1|flash medium}}} and change the syslinux.cfg file line from
append initrd=/boot/grsec.gz alpine_dev=usbdisk:vfat modules=loop,cramfs,sd-mod,usb-storage quiet
append initrd=/boot/grsec.gz alpine_dev=usbdisk:vfat modules=loop,cramfs,sd-mod,usb-storage''',ext3''' quiet
in the case of an ext3 formatted partition. A similar procedure might apply to other filesystems (if they are supported by syslinux and the Alpine Linux kernel).

Latest revision as of 02:58, 29 October 2012