Difference between revisions of "Installation"

From Alpine Linux
Jump to: navigation, search
m (Installation Overview)
(Rewrite to simplify and improve the document)
 
(34 intermediate revisions by 8 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
Please do help with sorting out the current wiki documentation, as soon as exploring around the further pages gives you a grasp good enough to sort out the further things precisely and nicely as well.
+
While Alpine Linux is often used as base image for linux containers, it can of course be also installed on bare metal machine as well. That is the focus of this document.
[[Image:hdd_mount.png|left|link=]]
 
<br />
 
  
 +
__TOC__
 +
__FORCETOC__
  
 +
= Quick Requirements =
  
 +
Nearly any hardware should run Alpine Linux but the following basic requirements are recommended:
  
This page will get you started, but it may also help to skim through the entire [[Alpine_Linux:FAQ| Frequenty Asked Questions (FAQ)]] (also part of the left sidebar).
+
* At least 128MB of RAM for server without GUI, or at least 1.6GB for graphical desktop
== Typical Hardware Requirements ==
+
* At least 1GB storage device for server without GUI, or at least 10GB for graphical desktop with web browsing
  
* At least 100 MB of RAM (A graphical desktop system may require up to 1 GB minimum.)
+
For more information, see [[Requirements]].
* A writable storage device. (Required for the "sys" or "data" runtime modes (see below). Optional for saving the configuration of systems running in "diskless" mode.)
 
  
== Installation Overview ==
+
[[File:Installation-alpine-alpine-setup-2-boot.png|350px|thumb|right|Installation : setup-alpine : booting process until login prompt]]
(To install on ARM systems that do not support .iso images refer to [[Alpine_on_ARM|Alpine on ARM]] instead.)
 
  
As with most linux distributions, the first installation steps usually consist of:<br>
+
= Installation Overview =
([[Installation#additional details|additional details]] below)
 
  
 +
The following steps are brief and intended for the common case; for complete info and other architectures, please consult the [[Alpine newbie install manual]].
  
'''1.)''' Downloading and verifying the proper [http://alpinelinux.org/downloads stable-release ISO image] for your computer's architecture, and the corresponding <code>sha256</code> (checksum) and <code>GPG</code> (signature) files.
+
== 1. Download the installation image ==
  
'''2.)''' Either burning the ISO image onto a blank CD/DVD/Blue-ray disk with your favorite disk burning software, or flashing the image onto a bootable storage device (USB-device, CF-/MMC-/SD-card, floppy, ...).
+
You need to acquire installation image, usually from [http://alpinelinux.org/downloads]. Most likely you will want the standard edition. Make sure you download the image for correct architecture.
  
'''3.)''' Booting the computer from the prepared disk or storage device.
+
== 2. Create the installation medium ==
  
 +
Either you can burn the image onto CD/DVD, you use usb stick for the installation.
  
The boot process first copies the entire system into the RAM memory, and then runs it completely from RAM. So that the started command line environment does not depend on reading from the (slow) initial boot media anymore.
+
Under linux, you can use the dd for that:
  
Log-in as the user <code>root</code> with its initially empty password.
+
<code><nowiki>dd if=<source iso> of=<target device> bs=4M; sync</nowiki></code>
  
Now an interactive script called <code>[[Alpine_setup_scripts#setup-alpine|setup-alpine]]</code>, as well as more specific [[Alpine_setup_scripts|setup-scripts]], the [[Alpine_Linux_package_management|apk package manager]], and all the general command line tools of course, can be used to configure the initial Alpine Linux system, to install further packages, and to prepare the system for the next boot.
+
Make sure that the device '''does not''' include partition number, so example from my machine:
  
Note that <code>[[Alpine_setup_scripts#setup-alpine|setup-alpine]]</code> supports to configure the system to boot into one of three general '''Alpinelinux runtime modes''':
+
<code><nowiki>dd if=~/Downloads/alpine-standard-3.10.2-x86_64.iso of=/dev/sdb bs=4M</nowiki></code>
  
'''diskless mode''' This is the default boot mode of the .iso images. <code>[[Alpine_setup_scripts#setup-alpine|setup-alpine]]</code> configures this if selecting to install to "disk=none", and it means that the whole  operating system and the applications run extremely fast from within RAM (saving unnecessary disk spin-ups, power and wear). A customized configuration and package selection may still be completely preserved on permanent storage media by using the "local backup utility" <code>[[Alpine_local_backup|lbu]]</code> and a [[Alpine_Linux_package_management#Local_Cache|local package cache]]. [Fixme: <code>setup-alpine</code> still needs [[Alpine_local_backup#Saving_and_loading_ISO_image_customizations| this detour]] to prepare a partition for this:] In setup-alpine, select to store configs and the package cache on a partition. (That mounted partition may later also be used by configuring some important applications to keep their data on it.)
+
The target device '''will be erased''', so make sure you use something without any data you do not
 +
want to lose.
  
'''data mode''' This mode is still accelerated by running the system from RAM, however swap storage and the whole {{Path|/var}} directory tree gets mounted from a persistent storage device (two newly created partitions). This location holds e.g. all log files, mailspools, databases, etc., as well as <code>[[Alpine_local_backup|lbu]]</code> backup commits and the package cache. The mode is useful for having RAM accelerated servers with amounts of variable user-data that exceed the available RAM size, and to let the entire current system state (not just the boot state) survive a system crash according to the particular filesystem's guarantees. [Fixme: Storing lbu configs to disk is not auto-configured after configuring the data partition, one still has to select saving configs to "none" first (the new data partition is not listed), and to manually set e.g. LBU_MEDIA=sda2 in /etc/lbu/lbu.conf and <code>echo "/dev/sda2 /media/sda2 vfat rw 0 0" >> /etc/fstab</code> afterwards.] The boot device may remain to be the one initially used, and can even be immutable (read-only).
+
== 3. Boot and install process ==
  
'''sys mode''' This is a traditional hard-disk install. If this mode is selected, the <code>[[setup-alpine]]</code> script defaults to create three partitions on the selected storage device, {{Path|/boot}}, {{Path|swap}} and {{Path|/}} (the filesystem root). This mode may be used for generic [[Desktops|desktop]] and development machines, for example.
+
Log in as the user <code>root</code> and execute [[Alpine_setup_scripts#setup-alpine|setup-alpine]] and answer all the questions asked. Quick step-by-step walkthrough (go read [[Alpine_setup_scripts#setup-alpine|setup-alpine]] for more in-depth explanation):
  
== Questions asked by <code>setup-alpine</code> ==
+
[[File:Installation-alpine-alpine-setup-3-setup-scripts.png|350px|thumb|right|Installation : setup-alpine : complete process single install]]
  
The <code>[[setup-alpine]]</code> script offers to configure:
+
===== Keyboard layout and variant =====
  
* Keyboard map (e.g. ''us'' and variant of ''us-nodeadkeys'')
+
As you would expect, this is keyboard layout you want. If you are not sure, answering <code>us</code> to both layout and variant will get you started and you can change it later.
* Hostname (The name for the computer.)
 
* Network (e.g. automatic DHCP IP address discovery)
 
* DNS Servers (For privacy reasons, it is NOT recommended to use servers like google's 8.8.8.8 etc.)
 
* Timezone
 
* Proxy ("None" for direct connections to the internet.)
 
* SSH (Openssh is part of the default images.)
 
* NTP (Chrony is part of the default images.)
 
* Runtime Mode (Select between "diskless" (disk=none), "data" or "sys", all described above.)
 
  
== Additional Details ==
+
===== System hostname =====
  
{{Expand|  }}
+
Pick the name of your computer, while not mandatory, something unique if prefered. Or you can just use <code>localhost</code> if you do not care.
  
This "Additional Details" section needs to be consolidated with the work at '''[https://docs.alpinelinux.org https://docs.alpinelinux.org] (not finished)'''
+
===== Network configuratinon =====
(Restructuring things there, moving and linking from here or there?).
 
  
=== Verifying the downloaded image file ===
+
You will be asked ''which'' network interface you want to configure, if you are not sure, picking the offered default would likely work. Once selected, you will be asked <code>Ip address for XXX?</code>, you can either assign an IP address or write <code>dhcp</code>, which will mean take configuration from the network (the <code>dhcp</code> works great for home networks where you do not care about IP of your machine).
  
{|  class="wikitable" style="width:95%; align=center"
+
Assuming you decided to configure network yourself with IP address, you will also be asked for netmask, gateway, dns domain name and dns server IP. Correct values for there are beyond the scope of this document, please refer to your network administrator for guidance instead.
|+ Commands to verify the checksum and GPG signature of a downloaded image file on different systems.
 
|-
 
! width=100px |  OS type
 
!  <code>sha265</code> check !! <code>sha265</code> calculation (to be compared manually) !! <code>GPG</code> signature verification
 
|-
 
! Linux
 
| <code>sha256sum -c alpine-*.iso.sha256</code> ||        || <code>curl https://alpinelinux.org/keys/ncopa.asc &#124; gpg --import ;</code>
 
<code> gpg --verify alpine-<version>.iso.asc alpine-<version>.iso</code>
 
|-
 
! Windows (PowerShell installed)
 
|                - ? -            || <code>Get-FileHash .\alpine-<image-version>.iso -Algorithm SHA256</code> || - ? -
 
|}
 
  
=== Booting from external devices ===
+
===== Password for root =====
  
Insert the boot media to a proper drive or port of the computer and turn the machine on, or restart it, if already running.
+
Well this one is obvious.
  
If the computer does not automatically boot from the desired device, one needs to bring up the boot menu selection for choosing the media to boot from. Depending on the computer the menu may be accessed by quickly (repeatedly) pressing a key when booting starts, or sometimes it is needed to press the button before starting the computer and keep holding it when it boots. Typical keys are:  `F9`-`F12`, sometimes `F7` or `F8`. If these don't bring up the boot menu, it may be necessary to enter the BIOS configuration and adjust the boot settings, for which typical keys are: `Del.` `F1` `F2` `F6` or `Esc.`
+
===== Timezone =====
  
=== Rebooting and testing the new system ===
+
For servers, it is common to use UTC, for non-server machines, your local timezone should be likely used. Notice that you can use <code>?</code> to list the timezone.
  
After the installation is completed, the system may be power-cycled or rebooted to confirm that everything is working.
+
===== HTTP/FTP Proxy =====
If the configured runtime mode was "sys", then remove the initial installation media to boot the newly installed system.
 
  
The relevant commands for this are <code>reboot</code> or  <code>poweroff</code>.
+
Most likely default (<code>none</code>) is the correct choice.
  
= Further Documentation =
+
===== NTP client =====
 +
 
 +
Which client to use for keeping the system clock in sync, default works for most people.
  
=== Installing ===
+
===== Mirror =====
  
* [[Directly booting an ISO file]] ''(without flashing it to a disk or device)''
+
Pick mirror from which to download updates, <code>1</code> is CDN backed by Fastly, so reasonable choice for most people.
* [[Tutorials_and_Howtos#Networking|Setting up Networking]] ''(incl. non-standard configurations)''
 
  
 +
===== SSH server =====
  
=== Post-Install ===
+
Which SSH server do you want to configure on your machine. If you know that you will '''not''' connect to your machine remotely (most laptops for example), <code>none</code> should be used. Otherwise, the default (<code>openssh</code>) is a good pick.
  
<!-- If you edit post-install, also consider [[Tutorials_and_Howtos#Post-Install]], [[Developer_Documentation#Package_management]] and the Handbook. These are not exact duplicates. -->
+
===== Disk setup =====
  
 +
Here your can pick the device to install the system on and also the mode in which it should be installed. For overview of the modes, see [[Alpine_setup_scripts#setup-modes|this]]. If you are not sure or just starting up, <code>sys</code> is likely what you want, it is the same mode that other distributions use for installation.
  
* [[Setting up a new user]]
+
'''All data on the chosen device will be erased!'''
  
* [[Enable Community Repository]] ''(Providing additional packages)''
+
===== Reboot =====
* [[Alpine Linux package management|Package Management (apk)]] ''(general search/add/del packages etc.)''
 
* [[Alpine setup scripts#setup-xorg-base|<code>setup-xorg-base</code>]] ''(display graphics, if required)''
 
** [[Xfce_Setup]] / [[Desktop-notes]] / [[Xfce_Desktop]]
 
  
* [[Alpine_local_backup|Local backup utility <code>lbu</code>]] ''(persisting RAM system configurations)''
+
After the script finishes installing the system, it will tell you to reboot. Note that:
** [[Back Up a Flash Memory Installation]] ''("diskless mode" systems)''
 
** [[Manually_editing_a_existing_apkovl]] ''(the stored custom configs)''
 
* [[Alpine Linux Init System|Init System (OpenRC)]] ''(Configure a service to automatically boot at next reboot)''
 
** [[Multiple Instances of Services]]
 
** [[Writing Init Scripts]]
 
  
* [[Hosting services on Alpine]] ''(Links to several mail/web/ssh server setup pages)''
+
* If the configured [[Alpine_setup_scripts#sys_mode|runtime mode was "sys"]], then remove the initial installation media to boot the newly installed system.
* Runnig programs and services in their own [[Firejail Security Sandbox]]
+
* If the configured [[Alpine_setup_scripts#diskless_mode|runtime mode was "data"]], then keep the installation media inserted to boot the newly installed system.
  
* [[Alpine_Linux_package_management#Upgrade_a_Running_System|Upgrading Alpine]] ''(checking for and installing updates)''
+
Then execute <code>reboot</code> and once the machine restarts and finishes booting up, you should see login prompt of your new Alpine Linux installation.
* [[How_to_make_a_custom_ISO_image_with_mkimage]]
 
  
=== Further Help and Information ===
+
The installation script only installs the base operating system. Applications such as a web server, mail server, desktop environment, or web browser are not installed and <code>root</code> is the only normal user. For instructions on proceeding after installation, please see [[Tutorials_and_Howtos#Post-Install|Tutorials_and_Howtos Post-Install section]].
  
* [[Running glibc programs]] ''(Installation and development)''
+
= Further Documentation =
  
<!-- * [[setup-acf]] ''(Configures ACF (webconfiguration) so you can manage your box through https)''
+
More specific instructions and instructions for other architectures or machines (e.g. ARM, RPi, etc) are defined in [[Tutorials_and_Howtos#Installation:_Use_cases|Installation:_Use_cases]]. Also see the following wiki pages for more information:
* [[Changing passwords for ACF|Changing passwords]]
 
-->
 
  
 
* [[FAQ|FAQs]]
 
* [[FAQ|FAQs]]
 
* [[Tutorials and Howtos]]
 
* [[Tutorials and Howtos]]
 
 
* [[Contribute|How to Contribute]]
 
* [[Contribute|How to Contribute]]
 
* [[Developer Documentation]]
 
* [[Developer Documentation]]
* [[Alpine_Linux:Wiki_etiquette|Wiki etiquette]] ''to collaborate on this documentation''
+
* [[Newbie Alpine Ecosystem]]
 
 
 
 
 
 
{{Tip| Alpine linux packages stay close to the upstream design. Therefore, all upstream documentation about configuring a software package, as well as good configuration guides from other distributions that stay close to upstream, like e.g. in the [https://wiki.archlinux.org/ Arch Wiki], are to a large degree also well applicable to configure the software on alpine linux, thus can be very useful.}}
 
 
 
= See Also =
 
  
There may still be something useful to find and sort out of the newbie's install notes in this wiki, moving godd things into the structured handbook style documentation.
+
== External links ==
  
# [[Newbie_Alpine_Ecosystem]]
+
* [https://mckayemu.github.io/alpineinstalls/ More information, in Spanish]
# [[Alpine newbie install manual]]
 
# [[Alpine_newbie#Install|Alpine_newbie Install section]]
 
# [https://mckayemu.github.io/alpineinstalls/ https://mckayemu.github.io/alpineinstalls/ All informatin for Spanish users]
 
  
 
[[Category:Installation]]
 
[[Category:Installation]]

Latest revision as of 16:10, 14 October 2020

While Alpine Linux is often used as base image for linux containers, it can of course be also installed on bare metal machine as well. That is the focus of this document.


Quick Requirements

Nearly any hardware should run Alpine Linux but the following basic requirements are recommended:

  • At least 128MB of RAM for server without GUI, or at least 1.6GB for graphical desktop
  • At least 1GB storage device for server without GUI, or at least 10GB for graphical desktop with web browsing

For more information, see Requirements.

Installation : setup-alpine : booting process until login prompt

Installation Overview

The following steps are brief and intended for the common case; for complete info and other architectures, please consult the Alpine newbie install manual.

1. Download the installation image

You need to acquire installation image, usually from [1]. Most likely you will want the standard edition. Make sure you download the image for correct architecture.

2. Create the installation medium

Either you can burn the image onto CD/DVD, you use usb stick for the installation.

Under linux, you can use the dd for that:

dd if=<source iso> of=<target device> bs=4M; sync

Make sure that the device does not include partition number, so example from my machine:

dd if=~/Downloads/alpine-standard-3.10.2-x86_64.iso of=/dev/sdb bs=4M

The target device will be erased, so make sure you use something without any data you do not want to lose.

3. Boot and install process

Log in as the user root and execute setup-alpine and answer all the questions asked. Quick step-by-step walkthrough (go read setup-alpine for more in-depth explanation):

Installation : setup-alpine : complete process single install
Keyboard layout and variant

As you would expect, this is keyboard layout you want. If you are not sure, answering us to both layout and variant will get you started and you can change it later.

System hostname

Pick the name of your computer, while not mandatory, something unique if prefered. Or you can just use localhost if you do not care.

Network configuratinon

You will be asked which network interface you want to configure, if you are not sure, picking the offered default would likely work. Once selected, you will be asked Ip address for XXX?, you can either assign an IP address or write dhcp, which will mean take configuration from the network (the dhcp works great for home networks where you do not care about IP of your machine).

Assuming you decided to configure network yourself with IP address, you will also be asked for netmask, gateway, dns domain name and dns server IP. Correct values for there are beyond the scope of this document, please refer to your network administrator for guidance instead.

Password for root

Well this one is obvious.

Timezone

For servers, it is common to use UTC, for non-server machines, your local timezone should be likely used. Notice that you can use ? to list the timezone.

HTTP/FTP Proxy

Most likely default (none) is the correct choice.

NTP client

Which client to use for keeping the system clock in sync, default works for most people.

Mirror

Pick mirror from which to download updates, 1 is CDN backed by Fastly, so reasonable choice for most people.

SSH server

Which SSH server do you want to configure on your machine. If you know that you will not connect to your machine remotely (most laptops for example), none should be used. Otherwise, the default (openssh) is a good pick.

Disk setup

Here your can pick the device to install the system on and also the mode in which it should be installed. For overview of the modes, see this. If you are not sure or just starting up, sys is likely what you want, it is the same mode that other distributions use for installation.

All data on the chosen device will be erased!

Reboot

After the script finishes installing the system, it will tell you to reboot. Note that:

  • If the configured runtime mode was "sys", then remove the initial installation media to boot the newly installed system.
  • If the configured runtime mode was "data", then keep the installation media inserted to boot the newly installed system.

Then execute reboot and once the machine restarts and finishes booting up, you should see login prompt of your new Alpine Linux installation.

The installation script only installs the base operating system. Applications such as a web server, mail server, desktop environment, or web browser are not installed and root is the only normal user. For instructions on proceeding after installation, please see Tutorials_and_Howtos Post-Install section.

Further Documentation

More specific instructions and instructions for other architectures or machines (e.g. ARM, RPi, etc) are defined in Installation:_Use_cases. Also see the following wiki pages for more information:

External links