Difference between revisions of "Installation"

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The following information will assist you with the installation of [http://alpinelinux.org/about Alpine Linux].
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[[Image:hdd_mount.png|left|link=]]
 
[[Image:hdd_mount.png|left|link=]]
 
<br />
 
<br />
  
== Installation Quick-Start in 3 Easy Steps ==
 
<div style="float:left; font-size:30px; font-weight:bold;">
 
1st
 
</div>
 
<div style="margin-left:65px; background-color:#EDF2F2; border-style:solid; border-color:#6F7C91; border-width:0px; border-left-width:5px; min-height:55px; padding:5px;">
 
[http://alpinelinux.org/downloads Download] the latest stable-release ISO.
 
</div>
 
  
  
<div style="float:left; font-size:30px; font-weight:bold;">
 
2nd
 
</div>
 
<div style="margin-left:65px; background-color:#E0E9E9; border-style:solid; border-color:#606A82; border-width:0px; border-left-width:5px; min-height:55px; padding:5px;">
 
If you have a CD drive from which you can boot, then [[Burning ISOs|burn the ISO onto a blank CD]] using your favorite CD burning software. Else [[Create a Bootable USB|create a bootable USB drive]].
 
</div>
 
  
 +
This page explains the basics to get started. But before actually installing, it can also help to skim through the [[Alpine_Linux:FAQ| Frequenty Asked Questions (FAQ)]].
 +
 +
{{Tip|This is a wiki!
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If something isn't correct (anymore), or still incomplete, you will have to try figuring it out, or ask for the correct solution in the [https://alpinelinux.org/community/ community].
 +
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And then carefully edit the wiki page.
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Just as those before you did it for you.
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}}
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== Minimal Hardware Requirements ==
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 +
* At least 100 MB of RAM. [A graphical desktop system may require up to 1 GB minimum.]
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* At least 0-700 MB space on a writable storage device. [Only required in "sys" or "data" mode installations (explained below). It is optional in "diskless" mode, only needed to save newer data and configurations states of a running system.]
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 +
For more information please check [[Requirements]]
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 +
== Installation Overview ==
 +
 +
=== The general course of action ===
 +
[Note: For single-board-computer (SBC) architectures which can not boot .iso images, see [[Alpine_on_ARM|Alpine on ARM]] for peculiarities.]
 +
 +
 +
As usual, the regular installation procedure starts with three basic steps (additional details for all the steps follow [[Installation#additional details|below]]):<br>
 +
 +
 +
'''1.)''' Downloading and verifying the proper [http://alpinelinux.org/downloads stable-release ISO installation image-file] for the computer's architecture, and the corresponding <code>sha256</code> (checksum) and <code>GPG</code> (signature) files.
 +
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'''2.)''' Either burning the ISO image-file onto a blank CD/DVD/Blu-ray disk with disk burning software, or flashing the installation image onto a bootable storage device (USB-device, CF-/MMC-/SD-card, floppy, ...).
 +
 +
'''3.)''' Booting the computer from the prepared disk or storage device.
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 +
 +
The boot process copies the entire operating system into the RAM memory, then runs it from there, after which, the command line environment does not depend on reading from the (possibly slow) initial boot media.
 +
 +
Log-in is possible as the user <code>root</code>. Initially, the root user has no password.
 +
 +
An interactive script named <code>[[Alpine_setup_scripts#setup-alpine|setup-alpine]]</code> is available at the command prompt to configure and install the initial Alpine Linux system.
 +
 +
The <code>[[Alpine_setup_scripts#setup-alpine|setup-alpine]]</code> question-and-answer dialog can configure installations that boot into one of three different '''Alpinelinux disk modes''', '''"diskless"''', '''"data"''', and '''"sys"'''. These are explained in more detail in the following subsections. However, a newly installed system may always be configured into a fully usable, standalone, "diskless" live-system by runing <code>[[Alpine_setup_scripts#setup-alpine|setup-alpine]]</code> and answering "none" when asked for the disk to use, where to store configs, and the location for the package cache.
 +
 +
Once a "diskless" system is configured by running <code>[[Alpine_setup_scripts#setup-alpine|setup-alpine]]</code>, it's possible to use the [[Alpine_Linux_package_management|apk package manager]] to install any desired tool that may be missing in the live system to configure available hardware.
 +
 +
Specific hardware configuration may be desired, for example, for available disk drives.
 +
e.g. If you need to install a custom partition or filesystem scheme, and if the installation should not use and/or overwrite the entire disk ([[Installation#Custom_partitioning_of_the_harddisk|details below]]).
 +
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After the desired adjustments have been made using the "diskless" system, <code>[[Alpine_setup_scripts#setup-lbu|setup-lbu]]</code> and <code>[[Alpine_setup_scripts#setup-apkcache|setup-apkcache]]</code> may be run to add persistent configuration and package cache storage to the running "diskless" system. After that, the system state may be saved with  <code>[[Alpine_local_backup|lbu commit]]</code>. Or, <code>[[Alpine_setup_scripts#setup-disk|setup-disk]]</code> may be run to add a "data" mode partition, or do a classic full install of the "diskless" system onto a "sys" disk or partition.
 +
 +
More [[Alpine_setup_scripts|setup-scripts]] are available to configure other specifics. They may be run separately to set up a system, or to adjust only specific parts later. For example, to set up a graphical environment (covered in [[Installation#Post-Install|Post-Install]] below).
 +
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==='''Diskless Mode'''===
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This is the default boot mode of the .iso images. <code>[[Alpine_setup_scripts#setup-alpine|setup-alpine]]</code> configures this if "disk=none" is selected during installation. It means the entire operating system and all applications are loaded into, then run from, RAM. This is extremely fast and can save on unnecessary disk spin-ups, power, and wear. It is similar to what is called a "frugal" install running with the "toram" option as with some other distros, but without the need to
 +
remaster the install media.
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 +
Custom configurations and package selections may be preserved across reboots with the Alpine local backup tool <code>[[Alpine_local_backup|lbu]]</code>. It enables committing and reverting system states using .apkovl files that are saved to writable storage and loaded when booting. If additional or updated packages have been added to the system, these may also be made available for automatic (re)installation during the boot phase, by enabling a [[Alpine_Linux_package_management#Local_Cache|local package cache]] on the writable storage.
 +
 +
[[https://gitlab.alpinelinux.org/alpine/alpine-conf/-/issues/10473 FIXME-1]: Storing local configs and the package cache on an ''internal'' disk still requires [[Alpine_local_backup#Saving_and_loading_ISO_image_customizations|some manual steps]] to have the partition listed, i.e. making a /etc/fstab entry, mountpoint, and mount, *before* running setup-alpine. And requires manually committing the configuration to disk afterwards.]
 +
 +
To allow for local backups, <code>setup-alpine</code> can be told to store the configs and the package cache on a writable partition. (Later, directories on that same partition or another available partition may also be mounted as /home, or for important applications, e.g. to keep their run-time and user data on it.)
 +
 +
The boot device of the newly configured local "diskless" system may remain the initial (and possibly read-only) installation media. But it is also possible to copy the boot system to a partition (e.g. /dev/sdXY) with <code>[[Alpine_setup_scripts#setup-bootable|setup-bootable]]</code>.
 +
 +
==='''Data Disk Mode'''===
 +
This mode also runs from system RAM, thus it enjoys the same accelerated operation speed as "diskless" mode. However, swap storage and the entire {{Path|/var}} directory tree get mounted from a persistent storage device (two newly created partitions). The directory {{Path|/var}} holds e.g. all log files, mailspools, databases, etc., as well as <code>[[Alpine_local_backup|lbu]]</code> backup commits and the package cache. This mode is useful for having RAM accelerated servers with variable amounts of user-data that exceed the available RAM size. It enables the entire current system state (not just the boot state) to survive a system crash in accordance with the particular filesystem guarantees.
 +
 +
[[https://gitlab.alpinelinux.org/alpine/alpine-conf/-/issues/10474 FIXME-2]: Setup-alpine can not yet configure storage of the lbu configs to the "data disk" after selecting one. It's still necessary to first select to save configs to "none" in setup-alpine (the new data partition is not listed), and to manually edit /etc/lbu/lbu.conf to set e.g. LBU_MEDIA=sdXY, then execute a corresponding <code>echo "/dev/sdXY /media/sdXY vfat rw 0 0" >> /etc/fstab</code> afterwards, and save the config with <code>lbu commit</code> to have the partition (here, denoted as sdXY) mounted when booting.]
 +
 +
In data disk mode, the boot device may also remain the initial (and possibly read-only) installation media, or be copied to a partition (e.g. /dev/sdXY) with <code>[[Alpine_setup_scripts#setup-bootable|setup-bootable]]</code>.
 +
 +
==='''System Disk Mode'''===
 +
This is a traditional hard-disk install.
 +
 +
If this mode is selected, the <code>[[setup-alpine]]</code> script creates three partitions on the selected storage device, {{Path|/boot}}, {{Path|swap}} and {{Path|/}} (the filesystem root). This mode may, for example, be used for generic [[Desktops|desktop]] and development machines.
 +
 +
For custom partitioning, see [[Setting_up_disks_manually]].
 +
 +
To install along side another operating systems, see [[Installing_Alpine_on_HDD_dualbooting]].
 +
 +
== Additional Details ==
 +
 +
{{Expand|  }}
 +
 +
This "Additional Details" section needs to be consolidated with the work at '''[https://docs.alpinelinux.org https://docs.alpinelinux.org] (not finished)'''
 +
(Restructuring things there, moving and linking from here or there?).
 +
 +
 +
=== Verifying the downloaded image-file ===
 +
 +
{|  class="wikitable" style="width:95%; align=center"
 +
|+ Commands to verify the checksum and GPG signature of a downloaded image-file on different systems.
 +
|-
 +
! width=100px |  OS type
 +
!  <code>SHA256</code> check !! <code>SHA256</code> calculation (to be compared manually) !! <code>GPG</code> signature verification
 +
|-
 +
! Linux
 +
| <code>sha256sum -c alpine-*.iso.sha256</code> ||        || <code>curl https://alpinelinux.org/keys/ncopa.asc &#124; gpg --import ;</code>
 +
<code> gpg --verify alpine-<version>.iso.asc alpine-<version>.iso</code>
 +
|-
 +
! MACOS 
 +
| - ? -  || <code>shasum -a 256 alpine-*.iso</code> || - ? -
 +
|-
 +
! BSD 
 +
| - ? - || <code>/usr/local/bin/shasum -a 256 alpine-*.iso</code> || - ? -
 +
|-
 +
! Windows (PowerShell installed)
 +
|                - ? -            || <code>Get-FileHash .\alpine-<image-version>.iso -Algorithm SHA256</code> || - ? -
 +
|}
 +
 +
=== Flashing (direct data writing) the installation image-file onto a device or media  ===
 +
 +
==== Unix/Linux ====
 +
 +
Under Unix (and thus Linux), "everything is a file" and the data in the image-file can be written to a device or media with the <code>dd</code> command. Afterward, executing the <code>eject</code> command removes the target device from the system and ensures the write cache is completely flushed.
  
<div style="float:left; font-size:30px; font-weight:bold;">
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dd if=<iso-file-to-read-in> of=<target-device-node-to-write-out-to> bs=4M oflag=sync status=progress; eject <target-device-node-to-write-to>
3rd
 
</div>
 
<div style="margin-left:65px; background-color:#9faecc; border-style:solid; border-color:#324065; border-width:0px; border-left-width:5px; min-height:55px; padding:5px;">
 
Boot from the CD or USB drive, login as root with no password, and voilà! Enjoy Alpine Linux!
 
</div>
 
  
{{Clear}}
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Be careful to correctly identify the target device as any data on it '''will''' be lost! All connected "bulk storage devices" can be listed with <code><nowiki>lsblk</nowiki></code> and <code><nowiki>blkid</nowiki></code>.
One of the [[Installation#Post-Install|first commands you might want to use]] is <code>[[setup-alpine]]</code>.
 
  
== Installation Handbook ==
+
# lsblk
=== Basics ===
+
NAME            MAJ:MIN RM  SIZE RO TYPE  MOUNTPOINT
Alpine can be used in any of three modes:
+
sdX              0:0    0  64,0G  0 disk 
<dl>
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├─sdX1            0:1    0    2G  0 part 
<dt>diskless mode
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└─sdX2            0:2    0    30G  0 part  /mnt/sdX2
<dd>You'll boot from read-only medium such as the installation CD, a [[Create a Bootable USB|USB drive]], or a [[Create a Bootable Compact Flash|Compact Flash card]]. {{Tip| To prepare either a USB or Compact Flash card, you can use the <code>[[setup-bootable]]</code> script; see the pages linked above for details.}} When you use Alpine in this mode, you need to use [[Alpine local backup|Alpine Local Backup (lbu)]] to save your modifications between reboots. That requires some writable medium, usually removable. (If your boot medium is, for example, a USB drive, you can save modifications there; you don't need a separate partition or drive.) See also [[Local APK cache]].
+
{{Note| When the <code>[[setup-alpine]]</code> script asks for a disk, say "none". It will then prompt whether you'd like to preserve modifications on any writable medium.}}
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# blkid
<dt>data mode
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/dev/sdX1: LABEL="some" UUID="..." TYPE="vfat"
<dd>As in diskless mode, your OS is run from a read-only medium. However, here a writable partition (usually on a hard disk) is used to store the data in {{Path|/var}}. That partition is accessed directly, rather than copied into a tmpfs; so this is better-suited to uses where large amounts of data need to be preserved between reboots. {{Note| The <code>[[setup-alpine]]</code> script handles installing Alpine in this mode, too, when you supply a writable partition instead of "none", and request mode "data".}} This mode may be used for mailspools, database and log servers, and so on.
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/dev/sdX2: LABEL="other" UUID="..." TYPE="ext4"
<dt>sys mode
 
<dd>This is a [[Install to disk|traditional hard-disk install]] (see link for details). <!-- includes [[Installing Alpine on HDD overwriting everything]] --> Both the boot system and your modifications are written to the hard disk, in a standard Linux hierarchy. {{Note| The <code>[[setup-alpine]]</code> script handles installing Alpine in this mode, too, when you supply a writable partition instead of "none", and request mode "sys". By default, it will create three partions on your disk, for {{Path|/boot}}, {{Path|/}}, and {{Path|swap}}; however you can also [[Setting up disks manually|partition your disk manually]].
 
}} This mode may be used for desktops, development boxes, and virtual servers.
 
    <!-- [[Native Harddisk Install 1.6]] Obsolete -->
 
</dl>
 
  
=== Advanced ===
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For example, if /dev/sdX is the desired target device, first make sure you un-mount all mounted partitions of the target device. For example sdX1 and sdX2:
* [[Create UEFI boot USB]]
 
* [[Tutorials_and_Howtos#Storage|Setting up storage with RAID, LVM, LUKS encryption, iSCSI, or suchlike]]
 
* [[Setting up disks manually]]
 
* [[Partitioning and Bootmanagers]]
 
* [[Migrating data]]
 
* Details about [[Alpine setup scripts]]
 
  
* [[Installing Alpine on HDD dualbooting|Install to HDD with dual-boot]]
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umount  /dev/sdX1  /dev/sdX2
* [[Replacing non-Alpine Linux with Alpine remotely]]
 
<!-- [[Installing Xubuntu using Alpine boot floppy]] Obsolete -->
 
<!-- [[Installing Alpine Linux on USB Automated]] Obsolete -->
 
  
* [[Bootstrapping Alpine Linux]]
 
  
<!-- If you edit the following, please coordinate with Developer_Documentation#Configuring_your_system. Note that these two sections are not exact duplicates. -->
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For <code>dd</code>'s output-file (<code>of=</code>), however, do '''not''' specify a partition number. For example, write to sdX, '''not''' sdX1:
* [[Installing Alpine Linux in a chroot]]
 
  
* Install Alpine on [[Install Alpine on VirtualBox|VirtualBox]], [[Install Alpine on VMware|VMware]], [[Install Alpine on coLinux|coLinux]], [[Qemu]], <!-- includes [[Install Alpine in Qemu]], [[Running Alpine in Qemu Live mode]], [[Running Alpine Linux As a QEMU networked Guest]] -->, [[Install Alpine on Amazon EC2|Amazon EC2]], or [[Install Alpine on Rackspace|RackSpace]]
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Warning: '''This will overwrite the target device /dev/sdX''', so before executing, make sure you have a backup of the data if you can't afford to lose it.
  
* [[Xen Dom0]] ''(Setting up Alpine as a dom0 for Xen hypervisor)''
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dd if=~/Downloads/alpine-standard-3.00.0-x86_64.iso of=/dev/sdX bs=4M oflag=sync status=progress; eject /dev/sdX
* [[Xen Dom0 on USB or SD]]
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* [[Create Alpine Linux PV DomU]]
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==== Windows ====
* [[Xen LiveCD]]
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 +
For example, there is the [https://rufus.ie/ Rufus] program. Rufus will enable you to create bootable USB flash drives under Windows.
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 +
Rufus has been tested and works for Alpine Linux 3.12.x with the following settings:
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* '''Partition scheme''': <code>MBR</code>
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* '''Target system''': <code>BIOS or UEFI</code>
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* '''File system''': <code>FAT32</code>
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* '''Cluster size''': <code>4096 bytes (default)</code>
 +
 
 +
===  Verifying the written installation media ===
 +
 
 +
After detaching and re-attaching the device, a bit-wise comparison can verify the data written to the device (instead of just data buffered in RAM). If the comparison terminates with an end-of-file error on the .iso file side, all the contents from the image have been written (and re-read) successfully:
 +
 
 +
# cmp ~/Downloads/alpine-standard-3.00.0-x86_64.iso /dev/sdX
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cmp: EOF on alpine-standard-3.00.0-x86_64.iso
 +
 
 +
=== Booting from external devices ===
 +
 
 +
Insert the boot media to a proper drive or port of the computer and turn the machine on, or restart it, if already running.
 +
 
 +
If the computer does not automatically boot from the desired device, one needs to bring up the boot menu and choose the media to boot from. Depending on the computer, the menu may be accessed by repeatedly pressing a key quickly when booting starts. Some computers require that you press the button ''before'' starting the computer and hold it down while the computer boots. Typical keys are:  `F9`-`F12`, sometimes `F7` or `F8`. If these don't bring up the boot menu, it may be necessary to enter the BIOS configuration and adjust the boot settings, for which typical keys are: `Del.` `F1` `F2` `F6` or `Esc.`
 +
 
 +
=== Custom partitioning of the harddisk ===
 +
 
 +
It is possible to specify configurations for RAID, encryption, LVM, etc. as well as manual partitioning.
 +
 
 +
For "diskless" or "data disk" mode installs, manual partitioning may be needed to prepare the harddisk for committing local backups of the system state with <code>[[Alpine_local_backup|lbu commit]]</code>, a package cache, or to use it as the /var mount.
 +
 
 +
For a "sys" install, custom partitioning is needed only if the desired scheme differs from overwriting an entire disk, or creating the default /boot, swap and root partitions.
 +
 
 +
See [[Setting_up_disks_manually]] for the alpine options for RAID, encryption, LVM, etc. and manual partitioning.
 +
 
 +
=== Questions asked by <code>setup-alpine</code> ===
 +
[[File:Installation-alpine-alpine-setup-3-setup-scripts.png|350px|thumb|right|Example <code>setup-alpine</code> session]]
 +
 
 +
The <code>[[setup-alpine]]</code> script offers the following configuration options:
 +
 
 +
* '''Keyboard Layout''' (Local keyboard language and usage mode, e.g. ''us'' and variant of ''us-nodeadkeys''.)
 +
* '''Hostname''' (The name for the computer.)
 +
* '''Network''' (For example, automatic IP address discovery with the "DHCP" protocol.)
 +
* '''DNS Servers''' (Domain Name Servers to query. For privacy reasons it is NOT recommended to route every local request to servers like google's <s>8.8.8.8</s> .)
 +
* '''Timezone'''
 +
* '''Proxy''' (Proxy server to use for accessing the web. Use "none" for direct connections to the internet.)
 +
* '''Mirror''' (From where to download packages. Choose the organization you trust giving your usage patterns to.)
 +
* '''SSH''' (Secure SHell remote access server. "Openssh" is part of the default install image. Use "none" to disable remote login, e.g. on laptops.)
 +
* '''NTP''' (Network Time Protocol client used for keeping the system clock in sync with a time server. Package "chrony" is part of the default install image.)
 +
* '''Disk Mode''' (Select between diskless (disk="none"), "data" or "sys", as described above.)
 +
  {{Warning|The data on a chosen device will be overwritten!}}
 +
 
 +
=== Preparing for the first boot ===
 +
 
 +
If <code>setup-alpine</code> has finished configuring the "sys" disk mode, the system should be ready to reboot right away (see next subsection).
 +
 
 +
If the new local system was configured to run in "diskless" or "data" mode, and you do not want keep booting from the initial (and possibly read-only) installation media, the boot system needs to be copied to another device or partition.
 +
 
 +
The target partition may be identified using <code><nowiki>lsblk</nowiki></code> (after installing it with <code>apk add lsblk</code>) and/or <code>blkid</code>, similar to previously identifying the initial installation media device.
 +
 
 +
The procedure to copy the boot system is explained at <code>[[Alpine_setup_scripts#setup-bootable|setup-bootable]]</code>
 +
 
 +
Once everything is in place, save your customized configuration with <code>lbu commit</code> before rebooting.
 +
 
 +
=== Rebooting and testing the new system ===
 +
 
 +
First, remove the initial installation media from the boot drive, or detach it fron the port it's connected to.
 +
 
 +
The system may now be power-cycled or rebooted to confirm everything is working correctly.
 +
 
 +
The relevant commands for this are <code>poweroff</code> or <code>reboot</code>.
 +
 
 +
=== Completing the installation ===
 +
 
 +
The installation script installs only the base operating system. '''No''' applications e.g. web server, mail server, desktop environment, or web browser are installed, and <code>root</code> is the only user.
 +
 
 +
Please look under "Post-Install" below, for some common things to do after installation.
 +
 
 +
= Additional Documentation =
 +
 
 +
=== Installing ===
 +
 
 +
* [[Kernels]] ''(kernel selection, e.g. for VMs or RPi)''
 +
* [[Directly booting an ISO file]] ''(without flashing it to a disk or device)''
 +
* [[Installing_Alpine_on_HDD_dualbooting|Dual/multi-boot install to HDD partition]]
 +
* [[Tutorials_and_Howtos#Networking|Setting up Networking]] ''(including non-standard configurations)''
 +
<br>
 +
* [[How to make a custom ISO image with mkimage]] ''(installation media with its own configuration)''
  
* [[Setting up a basic vserver]]
 
* [[Setting up the build environment on HDD]]
 
* [[Setting up a compile vserver]] for official or for [[Setting up a compile vserver for third party packages|third party]] packages
 
<!-- [[Create an Alpine 1.9 vserver template]] -->
 
  
 
=== Post-Install ===
 
=== Post-Install ===
<!-- If you edit this, please coordinate with and Tutorials_and_Howtos#Post-Install and Developer_Documentation#Package_management. Note that these three sections are not exact duplicates. -->
 
  
<!-- [[Configure Networking]] -->
+
<!-- If you edit post-install, also consider [[Tutorials_and_Howtos#Post-Install]], [[Developer_Documentation#Package_management]] and the Handbook.
* [[Tutorials_and_Howtos#Networking|Setting up Networking]]
+
Here, only the most relevant jumping off points are listed, not exact list duplicates!!!  -->
* [[Alpine Linux package management|Package Management (apk)]] ''(How to add/remove packages on your Alpine)''
+
 
  <!-- [[Alpine Linux package management#Local_Cache|How to enable APK caching]] -->
+
 
* [[Alpine local backup|Alpine local backup (lbu)]] ''(Permanently store your modifications in case your box needs reboot)''
+
Language support
** [[Back Up a Flash Memory Installation|Back Up a Flash Memory ("diskless mode") Installation]]
+
* Fix unicode defaults: <code>sed -i s/#unicode="NO"\n\n#/#unicode="NO"\n\nunicode="YES"\n\n#/ /etc/rc.conf</code>
** [[Manually editing a existing apkovl]]
+
* <code>apk add musl-locales</code> Installs a limited set of locales (languages) for musl (C library) generated console messages.
* [[Alpine Linux Init System|Init System (OpenRC)]] ''(Configure a service to automatically boot at next reboot)''
+
* Listing defined locales is possible with <code>locales -a</code>
 +
* <code>cp /etc/profile.d/locale.sh /etc/profile.d/locale.sh.sh</code> Copies the default locale settings. Then the custom override file can be edited <code>nano /etc/profile.d/locale.sh.sh</code>.
 +
* <code>apk add lang</code> Pulls in the translation packages of all installed packages.
 +
* <code>apk list hunspell*</code>  To list available hunspell dictionary packages.
 +
* <code>apk list *-xy *-xy-*</code>  To list translation packages for your specific (xy) language (for example, pt for Portuguese).
 +
 
 +
Documentation
 +
* <code>apk add man-pages</code> Installs basic manual pages.
 +
* <code>apk add mandoc</code> Installs the man command to be able to open man pages.
 +
* <code>apk add mandoc-apropos</code> Installs the apropos command to search in man pages.
 +
* <code>apk add docs</code> Installs all the *-doc sub-packages of installed packages.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
<br>
 +
* [[Setting up a new user]] ''(to allow remote, console, or graphical logins)''
 +
<br>
 +
* [[Enable Community Repository]] ''(access to additional packages)''
 +
* [[Alpine Linux package management|Package Management (apk)]] ''(how to search/add/del packages etc.)''
 +
* [[Alpine setup scripts#setup-xorg-base|<code>setup-xorg-base</code>]] ''(setup graphical base environment)''
 +
** [[Xfce_Setup]] / [[Gnome_Setup]] / [[KDE]] / [[MATE]] (desktop environments)
 +
* [[How to get regular stuff working]] ''(things one may miss in a too lightweight installation )''
 +
<br>
 +
* [[Alpine_local_backup|Local backup utility <code>lbu</code>]] ''(persisting RAM system configurations)''
 +
** [[Back Up a Flash Memory Installation]] ''("diskless mode" systems)''
 +
** [[Manually_editing_a_existing_apkovl]] ''(the stored custom configs)''
 +
<br>
 +
* [[Alpine Linux Init System|Init System (OpenRC)]] ''(configure a service to automatically boot at next reboot)''
 
** [[Multiple Instances of Services]]
 
** [[Multiple Instances of Services]]
  <!-- [[Writing Init Scripts]] -->
+
** [[Writing Init Scripts]]
* [[Alpine setup scripts#setup-xorg-base|Setting up Xorg]]
+
<br>
 +
* [[Hosting services on Alpine]] ''(links to several mail/web/ssh server setup pages)''
 +
* Running applications and services in their own [[Firejail Security Sandbox]]
 +
<br>
 +
* [[Alpine_Linux_package_management#Upgrade_a_Running_System|Upgrading Alpine]] ''(checking for and installing updates)''
  
* [[Upgrading Alpine]]
+
=== Additional Help and Information ===
<!-- Obsolete
+
 
[[Upgrading Alpine - v1.9.x]]
+
* [[Comparison with other distros]] ''(how common things are done on Alpine)''
[[Upgrading Alpine - CD v1.8.x]]
+
* [[Running glibc programs]] ''(installation and development)''
[[Upgrading Alpine - HD v1.8.x]]
 
[[Upgrade to repository main|Upgrading to signed repositories]]
 
-->
 
  
* [[Setting up a ssh-server]] ''(Using ssh is a good way to administer your box remotely)''
+
<!-- * [[setup-acf]] ''(configures ACF (webconfiguration) so you can manage your box through https)''
* [[setup-acf]] ''(Configures ACF (webconfiguration) so you can manage your box through https)''
 
* [[Hosting services on Alpine]]''(Links to several mail/web/ssh server setup pages)''
 
 
* [[Changing passwords for ACF|Changing passwords]]
 
* [[Changing passwords for ACF|Changing passwords]]
 +
-->
  
<!-- [[Running glibc programs]] Installation and Dev -->
 
* [[Setting the timezone]] ''(Not needed for the default musl- or uClibc-based installs)''
 
 
=== Further Help and Information ===
 
 
* [[FAQ|FAQs]]
 
* [[FAQ|FAQs]]
 
* [[Tutorials and Howtos]]
 
* [[Tutorials and Howtos]]
 +
 
* [[Contribute|How to Contribute]]
 
* [[Contribute|How to Contribute]]
 
* [[Developer Documentation]]
 
* [[Developer Documentation]]
 +
* [[Alpine_Linux:Wiki_etiquette|Wiki etiquette]] ''to collaborate on this documentation''
 +
 +
 +
 +
{{Tip| Alpine linux packages stay close to the upstream design. Therefore, all upstream documentation about configuring a software package, as well as good configuration guides from other distributions that stay close to upstream, e.g. those in the [https://wiki.archlinux.org/ Arch Wiki], are to a large degree, also applicable to configuring the software on alpine linux, thus can be very useful.}}
 +
 +
= Other Guides =
 +
 +
There may still be something useful to find and sort out of some "newbie" install notes in this wiki, but beware that these pages can lack explanations and contain highly opinionated content, redundantly on many convoluted pages.
 +
 +
# [[Newbie_Alpine_Ecosystem]]
 +
# [[Alpine newbie install manual]]
 +
# [[Alpine_newbie#Install|Alpine_newbie Install section]]
 +
# [https://mckayemu.github.io/alpineinstalls/ https://mckayemu.github.io/alpineinstalls/ All informatin for Spanish users]
  
 
[[Category:Installation]]
 
[[Category:Installation]]

Latest revision as of 20:34, 9 August 2021

Hdd mount.png




This page explains the basics to get started. But before actually installing, it can also help to skim through the Frequenty Asked Questions (FAQ).

Tip: This is a wiki!

If something isn't correct (anymore), or still incomplete, you will have to try figuring it out, or ask for the correct solution in the community.

And then carefully edit the wiki page.

Just as those before you did it for you.


Minimal Hardware Requirements

  • At least 100 MB of RAM. [A graphical desktop system may require up to 1 GB minimum.]
  • At least 0-700 MB space on a writable storage device. [Only required in "sys" or "data" mode installations (explained below). It is optional in "diskless" mode, only needed to save newer data and configurations states of a running system.]

For more information please check Requirements

Installation Overview

The general course of action

[Note: For single-board-computer (SBC) architectures which can not boot .iso images, see Alpine on ARM for peculiarities.]


As usual, the regular installation procedure starts with three basic steps (additional details for all the steps follow below):


1.) Downloading and verifying the proper stable-release ISO installation image-file for the computer's architecture, and the corresponding sha256 (checksum) and GPG (signature) files.

2.) Either burning the ISO image-file onto a blank CD/DVD/Blu-ray disk with disk burning software, or flashing the installation image onto a bootable storage device (USB-device, CF-/MMC-/SD-card, floppy, ...).

3.) Booting the computer from the prepared disk or storage device.


The boot process copies the entire operating system into the RAM memory, then runs it from there, after which, the command line environment does not depend on reading from the (possibly slow) initial boot media.

Log-in is possible as the user root. Initially, the root user has no password.

An interactive script named setup-alpine is available at the command prompt to configure and install the initial Alpine Linux system.

The setup-alpine question-and-answer dialog can configure installations that boot into one of three different Alpinelinux disk modes, "diskless", "data", and "sys". These are explained in more detail in the following subsections. However, a newly installed system may always be configured into a fully usable, standalone, "diskless" live-system by runing setup-alpine and answering "none" when asked for the disk to use, where to store configs, and the location for the package cache.

Once a "diskless" system is configured by running setup-alpine, it's possible to use the apk package manager to install any desired tool that may be missing in the live system to configure available hardware.

Specific hardware configuration may be desired, for example, for available disk drives. e.g. If you need to install a custom partition or filesystem scheme, and if the installation should not use and/or overwrite the entire disk (details below).

After the desired adjustments have been made using the "diskless" system, setup-lbu and setup-apkcache may be run to add persistent configuration and package cache storage to the running "diskless" system. After that, the system state may be saved with lbu commit. Or, setup-disk may be run to add a "data" mode partition, or do a classic full install of the "diskless" system onto a "sys" disk or partition.

More setup-scripts are available to configure other specifics. They may be run separately to set up a system, or to adjust only specific parts later. For example, to set up a graphical environment (covered in Post-Install below).

Diskless Mode

This is the default boot mode of the .iso images. setup-alpine configures this if "disk=none" is selected during installation. It means the entire operating system and all applications are loaded into, then run from, RAM. This is extremely fast and can save on unnecessary disk spin-ups, power, and wear. It is similar to what is called a "frugal" install running with the "toram" option as with some other distros, but without the need to remaster the install media.

Custom configurations and package selections may be preserved across reboots with the Alpine local backup tool lbu. It enables committing and reverting system states using .apkovl files that are saved to writable storage and loaded when booting. If additional or updated packages have been added to the system, these may also be made available for automatic (re)installation during the boot phase, by enabling a local package cache on the writable storage.

[FIXME-1: Storing local configs and the package cache on an internal disk still requires some manual steps to have the partition listed, i.e. making a /etc/fstab entry, mountpoint, and mount, *before* running setup-alpine. And requires manually committing the configuration to disk afterwards.]

To allow for local backups, setup-alpine can be told to store the configs and the package cache on a writable partition. (Later, directories on that same partition or another available partition may also be mounted as /home, or for important applications, e.g. to keep their run-time and user data on it.)

The boot device of the newly configured local "diskless" system may remain the initial (and possibly read-only) installation media. But it is also possible to copy the boot system to a partition (e.g. /dev/sdXY) with setup-bootable.

Data Disk Mode

This mode also runs from system RAM, thus it enjoys the same accelerated operation speed as "diskless" mode. However, swap storage and the entire /var directory tree get mounted from a persistent storage device (two newly created partitions). The directory /var holds e.g. all log files, mailspools, databases, etc., as well as lbu backup commits and the package cache. This mode is useful for having RAM accelerated servers with variable amounts of user-data that exceed the available RAM size. It enables the entire current system state (not just the boot state) to survive a system crash in accordance with the particular filesystem guarantees.

[FIXME-2: Setup-alpine can not yet configure storage of the lbu configs to the "data disk" after selecting one. It's still necessary to first select to save configs to "none" in setup-alpine (the new data partition is not listed), and to manually edit /etc/lbu/lbu.conf to set e.g. LBU_MEDIA=sdXY, then execute a corresponding echo "/dev/sdXY /media/sdXY vfat rw 0 0" >> /etc/fstab afterwards, and save the config with lbu commit to have the partition (here, denoted as sdXY) mounted when booting.]

In data disk mode, the boot device may also remain the initial (and possibly read-only) installation media, or be copied to a partition (e.g. /dev/sdXY) with setup-bootable.

System Disk Mode

This is a traditional hard-disk install.

If this mode is selected, the setup-alpine script creates three partitions on the selected storage device, /boot, swap and / (the filesystem root). This mode may, for example, be used for generic desktop and development machines.

For custom partitioning, see Setting_up_disks_manually.

To install along side another operating systems, see Installing_Alpine_on_HDD_dualbooting.

Additional Details

Tango-view-fullscreen.png
This material needs expanding ...

This "Additional Details" section needs to be consolidated with the work at https://docs.alpinelinux.org (not finished) (Restructuring things there, moving and linking from here or there?).


Verifying the downloaded image-file

Commands to verify the checksum and GPG signature of a downloaded image-file on different systems.
OS type SHA256 check SHA256 calculation (to be compared manually) GPG signature verification
Linux sha256sum -c alpine-*.iso.sha256 curl https://alpinelinux.org/keys/ncopa.asc | gpg --import ;

gpg --verify alpine-<version>.iso.asc alpine-<version>.iso

MACOS - ? - shasum -a 256 alpine-*.iso - ? -
BSD - ? - /usr/local/bin/shasum -a 256 alpine-*.iso - ? -
Windows (PowerShell installed) - ? - Get-FileHash .\alpine-<image-version>.iso -Algorithm SHA256 - ? -

Flashing (direct data writing) the installation image-file onto a device or media

Unix/Linux

Under Unix (and thus Linux), "everything is a file" and the data in the image-file can be written to a device or media with the dd command. Afterward, executing the eject command removes the target device from the system and ensures the write cache is completely flushed.

dd if=<iso-file-to-read-in> of=<target-device-node-to-write-out-to> bs=4M oflag=sync status=progress; eject <target-device-node-to-write-to>

Be careful to correctly identify the target device as any data on it will be lost! All connected "bulk storage devices" can be listed with lsblk and blkid.

# lsblk
NAME            MAJ:MIN RM   SIZE RO TYPE  MOUNTPOINT
sdX               0:0    0  64,0G  0 disk  
├─sdX1            0:1    0     2G  0 part  
└─sdX2            0:2    0    30G  0 part  /mnt/sdX2

# blkid
/dev/sdX1: LABEL="some" UUID="..." TYPE="vfat"
/dev/sdX2: LABEL="other" UUID="..." TYPE="ext4"

For example, if /dev/sdX is the desired target device, first make sure you un-mount all mounted partitions of the target device. For example sdX1 and sdX2:

umount  /dev/sdX1  /dev/sdX2


For dd's output-file (of=), however, do not specify a partition number. For example, write to sdX, not sdX1:

Warning: This will overwrite the target device /dev/sdX, so before executing, make sure you have a backup of the data if you can't afford to lose it.

dd if=~/Downloads/alpine-standard-3.00.0-x86_64.iso of=/dev/sdX bs=4M oflag=sync status=progress; eject /dev/sdX

Windows

For example, there is the Rufus program. Rufus will enable you to create bootable USB flash drives under Windows.

Rufus has been tested and works for Alpine Linux 3.12.x with the following settings:

  • Partition scheme: MBR
  • Target system: BIOS or UEFI
  • File system: FAT32
  • Cluster size: 4096 bytes (default)

Verifying the written installation media

After detaching and re-attaching the device, a bit-wise comparison can verify the data written to the device (instead of just data buffered in RAM). If the comparison terminates with an end-of-file error on the .iso file side, all the contents from the image have been written (and re-read) successfully:

# cmp ~/Downloads/alpine-standard-3.00.0-x86_64.iso /dev/sdX
cmp: EOF on alpine-standard-3.00.0-x86_64.iso

Booting from external devices

Insert the boot media to a proper drive or port of the computer and turn the machine on, or restart it, if already running.

If the computer does not automatically boot from the desired device, one needs to bring up the boot menu and choose the media to boot from. Depending on the computer, the menu may be accessed by repeatedly pressing a key quickly when booting starts. Some computers require that you press the button before starting the computer and hold it down while the computer boots. Typical keys are: `F9`-`F12`, sometimes `F7` or `F8`. If these don't bring up the boot menu, it may be necessary to enter the BIOS configuration and adjust the boot settings, for which typical keys are: `Del.` `F1` `F2` `F6` or `Esc.`

Custom partitioning of the harddisk

It is possible to specify configurations for RAID, encryption, LVM, etc. as well as manual partitioning.

For "diskless" or "data disk" mode installs, manual partitioning may be needed to prepare the harddisk for committing local backups of the system state with lbu commit, a package cache, or to use it as the /var mount.

For a "sys" install, custom partitioning is needed only if the desired scheme differs from overwriting an entire disk, or creating the default /boot, swap and root partitions.

See Setting_up_disks_manually for the alpine options for RAID, encryption, LVM, etc. and manual partitioning.

Questions asked by setup-alpine

Example setup-alpine session

The setup-alpine script offers the following configuration options:

  • Keyboard Layout (Local keyboard language and usage mode, e.g. us and variant of us-nodeadkeys.)
  • Hostname (The name for the computer.)
  • Network (For example, automatic IP address discovery with the "DHCP" protocol.)
  • DNS Servers (Domain Name Servers to query. For privacy reasons it is NOT recommended to route every local request to servers like google's 8.8.8.8 .)
  • Timezone
  • Proxy (Proxy server to use for accessing the web. Use "none" for direct connections to the internet.)
  • Mirror (From where to download packages. Choose the organization you trust giving your usage patterns to.)
  • SSH (Secure SHell remote access server. "Openssh" is part of the default install image. Use "none" to disable remote login, e.g. on laptops.)
  • NTP (Network Time Protocol client used for keeping the system clock in sync with a time server. Package "chrony" is part of the default install image.)
  • Disk Mode (Select between diskless (disk="none"), "data" or "sys", as described above.)
Tango-dialog-warning.png
Warning: The data on a chosen device will be overwritten!


Preparing for the first boot

If setup-alpine has finished configuring the "sys" disk mode, the system should be ready to reboot right away (see next subsection).

If the new local system was configured to run in "diskless" or "data" mode, and you do not want keep booting from the initial (and possibly read-only) installation media, the boot system needs to be copied to another device or partition.

The target partition may be identified using lsblk (after installing it with apk add lsblk) and/or blkid, similar to previously identifying the initial installation media device.

The procedure to copy the boot system is explained at setup-bootable

Once everything is in place, save your customized configuration with lbu commit before rebooting.

Rebooting and testing the new system

First, remove the initial installation media from the boot drive, or detach it fron the port it's connected to.

The system may now be power-cycled or rebooted to confirm everything is working correctly.

The relevant commands for this are poweroff or reboot.

Completing the installation

The installation script installs only the base operating system. No applications e.g. web server, mail server, desktop environment, or web browser are installed, and root is the only user.

Please look under "Post-Install" below, for some common things to do after installation.

Additional Documentation

Installing



Post-Install

Language support

  • Fix unicode defaults: sed -i s/#unicode="NO"\n\n#/#unicode="NO"\n\nunicode="YES"\n\n#/ /etc/rc.conf
  • apk add musl-locales Installs a limited set of locales (languages) for musl (C library) generated console messages.
  • Listing defined locales is possible with locales -a
  • cp /etc/profile.d/locale.sh /etc/profile.d/locale.sh.sh Copies the default locale settings. Then the custom override file can be edited nano /etc/profile.d/locale.sh.sh.
  • apk add lang Pulls in the translation packages of all installed packages.
  • apk list hunspell* To list available hunspell dictionary packages.
  • apk list *-xy *-xy-* To list translation packages for your specific (xy) language (for example, pt for Portuguese).

Documentation

  • apk add man-pages Installs basic manual pages.
  • apk add mandoc Installs the man command to be able to open man pages.
  • apk add mandoc-apropos Installs the apropos command to search in man pages.
  • apk add docs Installs all the *-doc sub-packages of installed packages.








Additional Help and Information



Tip: Alpine linux packages stay close to the upstream design. Therefore, all upstream documentation about configuring a software package, as well as good configuration guides from other distributions that stay close to upstream, e.g. those in the Arch Wiki, are to a large degree, also applicable to configuring the software on alpine linux, thus can be very useful.

Other Guides

There may still be something useful to find and sort out of some "newbie" install notes in this wiki, but beware that these pages can lack explanations and contain highly opinionated content, redundantly on many convoluted pages.

  1. Newbie_Alpine_Ecosystem
  2. Alpine newbie install manual
  3. Alpine_newbie Install section
  4. https://mckayemu.github.io/alpineinstalls/ All informatin for Spanish users