Alpine Wall User's Guide

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Configuration File Processing

Alpine Wall (awall) reads its configuration from multiple JSON-formatted files, called policy files. The processing starts from directory /usr/share/awall/mandatory, which contains mandatory policy files shipped with APK packages. After that, installation-specific policy files in /etc/awall are processed.

The latter directory may also contain symbolic links to policy files located in /usr/share/awall/optional. These are optional policies, which can be enabled on need basis. Such symbolic links are easily created and destroyed using the awall enable and awall disable commands. awall list shows which optional policies are enabled and disabled. The command also prints the description of the optional policy if defined in the file using a top-level attribute named description.

Sometimes a policy file depends on other policy files. In this case, the policy file must have a top-level attribute import, the value of which is a list of policy names, which correspond to the file names without the .json suffix. The policies listed there are always processed before the importing policy. The order of the generated iptables rules generally reflects the processing order of their corresponding awall policies.

As the import directive does not require the path name to be specified, awall expects policies to have unique names, even if located in different directories. It is allowed to import optional policies that are not explicitly enabled by the user. Such policies show up with the required status in the output of awall list.

List Parameters

Several awall parameters are defined as lists of values. In order to facilitate manual editing of policy files, awall also accepts single values in place of lists. Such values are semantically equivalent to lists containing one element.

Variable Expansion

Awall allows variable definitions in policy files. The top-level attribute variable is a dictionary containing the definitions. The value of a variable can be of any type (string, integer, list, or dictionary).

A variable is referenced in policy files by a string which equals the variable name prepended with the $ character. If the value of the variable is a string, the reference can be embedded into a longer string in order to substitute some part of that string (in shell style). Variable references can be used when defining other variables, as long as the definitions are not circular.

Policy files can reference variables defined in other policy files. Policy files can also override variables defined elsewhere by redefining them. In this case, the new definition affects all policy files, also those processed before the overriding policy. Awall variables are in fact simple macros, since each variable remains constant thoughout a single processing round. If multiple files define the same variable, the definition in the file processed last takes effect.

If defined as an empty string, all non-embedded references to a variable evaluate as if the attribute in question was not present in the configuration. This is also the case when a string containing embedded variable references finally evaluates to an empty string.

Configuration Objects

Configuration objects can be divided into two main types. Auxiliary objects model high-level concepts such as services and zones. Rule objects translate into one or more iptables rules, and are often defined with the help of some auxiliary objects.

Services

A service represents a set of network protocols. A top-level attribute service is a dictionary that maps service names to service definition objects, or lists thereof in more complex cases.

A service definition object contains an attribute named proto, which corresponds to the --protocol option of iptables. The protocol can be defined as a numerical value or string as defined in /etc/protocols. If the protocol is tcp or udp, the scope of the service definition may be constrained by defining an attribute named port, which is a list of TCP or UDP port numbers. If the protocol is icmp or icmpv6, an analogous icmp-type attribute may be used. In addition, the scope of the rule is also automatically limited to IPv4 or IPv6, respectively.

Zones

A zone represents a set of network hosts. A top-level attribute zone is a dictionary that maps zone names to zone objects. A zone object has an attribute named iface, addr, or both. iface is a list of network interfaces and addr is a list of IPv4/IPv6 host and network addresses (CIDR notation). addr may also contain domain names, which are expanded to IP addresses using DNS resolution. If not defined, addr defaults to the entire address space and iface to all interfaces.

Rule objects contain two attributes, in and out, which are lists of zone names. These attributes control whether a packet matches the rule or not. If a particular zone is referenced by the in attribute, the rule applies to packets whose ingress interface and source address are covered by the zone definition. Correspondingly, if a zone is referenced by the out attribute, the rule applies to packets whose egress interface and destination address are included in the zone. If both in and out are defined, the packet must fulfill both criteria in order to match the rule.

Rules

There are three types of rule objects: policies, filters, and NAT rules.

All rule objects can have the in and out attributes referring to zones as described in the previous section. In addition, the scope of the rule can be further constrained with the following attributes:

Attribute Value format Effect
src Similar to addr attribute of zone objects Packet's source address matches the value
dest Similar to addr attribute of zone objects Packet's destination address matches the value
ipset Object containing two attributes: name referring to an IP set and args, which is a list of strings in and out Packet matches the IP set referred here when the match arguments are taken from the source (in) and destination (out) address or port in the order specified by args
ipsec in or out IPsec decapsulation perfomed on ingress (in) or encapsulation performed on egress (out)

Rule objects must have an attribute named action, the value of which can be one of the following:

Value Action
accept Accept the packet
reject Reject the packet with an ICMP error message
drop Silently drop the packet
logreject Similar to reject but with kernel logging
logdrop Similar to drop but with kernel logging

Rule objects are declared in type-specific top-level dictionaries in awall policy files. If a packet matches multiple rules, the one appearing earlier in the list takes precedence. If the matching rules are defined in different policy files, the one that was processed earlier takes precedence in the current implementation, but this may change in future versions.

Filters

Filter objects specify an action for packets fulfilling certain criteria. The top-level attribute filter is a list of filter objects. The precedence rules are similar to those of policy objects.

In addition to the common rule attributes, filter objects can have a service attribute constraining the scope to specific services only. This attribute is a list of service names, referring to the keys of the top-level service dictionary.

Filter objects may also contain limits for packet flow or new connections. These are specified with the flow-limit and conn-limit attributes, respectively. The values of these attributes are limit objects that have two attributes: count and interval. count specifies how many new connections or packets are allowed within the time frame specified by interval (in seconds). The logdrop action is applied to the packets exceeding the limit.

Filter objects may have an attribute named dnat, the value of which is an IPv4 address. If defined, this enables destination NAT for all IPv4 packets matching the rule, such that the specified address replaces the original destination address. This option has no effect on IPv6 packets.

Policies

Policy objects describe the default action for packets that did not match any filter. The top-level attribute policy is a list of policy objects. Policy objects do not have other attributes than those common to all rule objects.

NAT Rules

NAT rules come in two flavors: source NAT rules and destination NAT rules. These are contained in two top-level lists named snat and dnat, respectively.

Each NAT rule must have an attribute named ip-range that specifies the IPv4 address range to which the original source or destinatinon address is mapped. The value can be a single IPv4 address or a range specified by two addresses, separated with the - character.

Optionally, a NAT rule can specify the TCP and UDP port range to which the original source or destination port is mapped. The attribute is named port-range, and the value can be a single port number or a range specified by two numbers, separated with the - character. If port-range is not specified, the original port number is kept intact.

Like filters, NAT rules can have a service attribute constraining their scope to specific services.

IP Sets

Any IP set referenced by rule objects should be created by awall. Auxiliary IP set objects are used to defined them in awall policy files. The top-level attribute ipset is a dictionary, the keys of which are IP set names. The values are IP set objects, which have two mandatory attributes. The attribute named type corresponds to the type argument of the ipset create command. family specifies whether the set is for IPv4 or IPv6 addresses, and the possible values are inet and inet6, correspondingly.

Command Line Syntax

Translating Policy Files to Firewall Configuration Files

awall translate [-o|--output DIRECTORY] [-V|--verify]

The --verify option makes awall verify the configuration using the test mode of iptables-restore before overwriting the old files.

Specifying the output directory allows testing awall policies without overwriting the current iptables and ipset configuration files. By default, awall generates the configuration to /etc/iptables and /etc/ipset.d, which are read by the init scripts.

Run-Time Activation of New Firewall Configuration

awall activate

This command genereates firewall configuration from the policy files and enables it. If the user confirms the new configuration by hitting the Return key within 10 seconds, the configuration is saved to the files. Otherwise, the old configuration is restored.

Optional Policies

Optional policies can be enabled or disabled using this command:

awall {enable|disable} POLICY...

Optional policies can be listed using this command:

awall list

The enabled status means that the policy has been enabled by the user. The disabled status means that the policy is not in use. The required status means that the policy has not been enabled by the user but is in use because it is required by another policy which is in use.